For the longest time female circumcision was considered an ‘’African problem“, the practice was seen as rooted in African pre-Islamic, pre-Christian culture. For
, the only
non-African country where it was long known to exist, it was assumed to be imported
from the African continent. Yemen
Newer evidence shows that these assumptions can’t be correct, neither geographically nor does the explanation suffice. The narrative already took a severe blow when it surfaced that FGM is prevalent in parts of the Kurdish region of
North Iraq. Surveys in this region and lobby work in fact
led to the inclusion of
in those 29 countries UNICEF now considers to be those where the practice is
By now it is evident that FGM is practiced in many more Asian countries. Small-scale surveys show its existence in
Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait
and the .
In United Arab Emirates Oman and media
reports have tackled the issue. A broad discussion about bans and restrictions
has been taken place in Indonesian media for years. Pakistan
Religion or Culture
Female Genital Mutilation occurs in non-Muslim societies in
and is practiced by Christians, Muslims and Animists alike. In , where
perhaps 97 percent of girls suffer genital mutilation, both Christian Copts and
Muslims are complicit. Thus, it has long been concluded to be a cultural
practice, not connected to religion. Egypt
However, on the village level, those who commit the practice offer a mix of cultural and religious reasons for the practice. Christians and Muslims alike believe that circumcision of girls prevents them from vice and makes them more attractive for future husbands; mothers fear that their daughters can’t get married if they have not been cut.
Sometimes myths have formed to justify FGM. Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, an expert on FGM who spent years in
Kenya, Egypt, and Sudan,
explains that “it is believed in the that the clitoris will grow
to the length of a goose’s neck until it dangles between the legs, in rivalry
with the male’s penis, if it is not cut.” Sudan
However, Muslim proponents of FGM also stress the religious necessity. Midwifes and mothers insist that it is “sunnah” – an opinion shared by most Islamic clerics. Yet, sunnah can either mean that a practice is religiously recommended or simply that it was done that way in the times of the prophet Mohammed.
While there is no mention of FGM in the Quran, a Hadith (saying about the life of the prophet) recounts a debate between Muhammed and Um Habibah (or Um ‘Atiyyah). This woman, known as an exciser of female slaves, was one of a group of women who had immigrated with Muhammed. Having seen her, Muhammad asked her if she kept practicing her profession. She answered affirmatively, adding: “unless it is forbidden, and you order me to stop doing it.” Muhammed replied: “Yes, it is allowed. Come closer so I can teach you: if you cut, do not overdo it, because it brings more radiance to the face, and it is more pleasant for the husband.”
Most clerics use this hadith to say circumcision is recommended, but not obligatory for women. But some say it is obligatory. While others who take a position against FGM call this hadith weak in relation to the “do no harm” principle of Islam or interpret the intention of the prophet differently.
Let’s think about this as we carry on campaigning to end FGM!